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Chasing the Horizon: Some incidents in the life of Captain George H. Cooper

May 25, 2015

Captain George H Cooper - 1901George Herbert Cooper  was, in the first half of his life, a daring sea captain, an imaginative builder of eccentric steamboats, an entrepreneur  and inventor of  a system of arithmetical notation; and in the latter half of his life builder of imaginative sociological and scientific theories, weaving together ancient myths, archaeological, geographical and astronomical knowledge and his own adventures; the author of three major works and numerous articles.

GH Cooper was an Englishman, a British Columbian and an American. When he left his birthplace he was still a youth, but with years of experience on the sea. In British Columbia he built boats and piloted them, married and had children and authored his first book of mathematics.  At age 56 a personal crisis sent him and his family to San Jose California, where in his later years he was a researcher and author.

Birth – Early Occupation – Arrival in British Columbia

George Herbert Cooper was born in Coventry, Warwickshire, England in February 1859.  In the early 1870’s his parents Samuel and Sarah Cooper took the family to the Channel coast, residing at Plymouth. George Cooper went to sea at an early age: at 13 he was fishing the coasts of Great Britain. Samuel Cooper died in the 70’s and Sarah took six of her children back to Warwickshire. By this time George Cooper had left the parental home for good.

Cooper has stated he had sailed to Australia in 1875 and first came to British Columbia in 1878. Upon his arrival in the Northwest, George Cooper resumed his occupation of fishing. He once held a fishing license for the Columbia River. He made New Westminster his home.

On the Voters List for 1884 and in the city directory George H Cooper is listed as “fisherman.”

1891 Capt Geo H Cooper household - directoryThe New Westminster City directory for 1891 has Captain George Cooper living at 425 Trew Street (now Victoria Street), along with his widowed mother Sarah Cooper and his 18-year-old brother Oliver Cooper, a plumber.

(No further record of Sarah Cooper is found here and she may have returned to England.)

The Steamer Dreadnaught

In 1889 Captain George H. Cooper began to build the first of the two imaginative boats that would make his reputation in British Columbia. Cooper built his first famous vessel  with his own hands on the Brunette River, his efforts attracting more scorn than Noah from expert boat-builders.

Launched  at Sapperton in 1890, the Dreadnaught was a screw steamer, 82 feet in length, 13 wide, and with a depth of hold 5 and a half feet. Her gross tonnage was 33 tons, and equipped with two 60 horsepower engines,  she was said to be capable of making 12 knots per hour.

The Dreadnaught was derided by marine critics for its eccentric design –  the  V-shaped hull attracted ridicule — but proved a durable sea-going vessel, capable of weathering the worst storms the coast could throw at her.  She was built for deep-sea fishing and that was how she was engaged.

The Dreadnaught met her share of mishaps, as did most vessels of that era, but survived.

“Mr Cooper has acquired a reputation along the coast for building unique boats, one of them being the Dreadnaught. It was predicted that this vessel would prove a failure, but time has shown the contrary.” – The British Columbian

Testifying before the Salmon Commission in 1892, Capt Cooper said he had been forced to sell his steamer because he was denied a fishing license by the inspector, who told him “he was well enough off without one.”  The sale was reported to have made Cooper “a handsome profit.”

At Coal Harbor in 1892 some modifications were made to the Dreadnaught, altering her hull, and widening and lowering her stern, to prepare for a career change.

In 1894 the Dreadnaught foundered on  the rocks at First Narrows, at the same point where the Beaver was wrecked, and was thought to be finished.  However, she was floated off at the next high tide and steamed into the harbor, uninjured.

 Dreadnaught was owned for some years by Captain James Williams of Vancouver and put to work on Burrard Inlet as a utility vessel. From the reminiscences of Captain William Watts:


"Another of the early captains was Jim Williams, a sturdy Britisher. He was connected with a quarry at Granite Falls, head of Burrard Inlet. He acquired a tug boat built by a very eccentric ship’s captain at Westminster by the name of Cooper. The tug was called the Dreadnaught and used principally for towing gravel scows. She usually had two scows, one each side, to keep her on even keel. She had no lines, was built like a V and it was said she was constructed with 1 x 4 fir battens and common cut nails. However, Capt. Williams must have made a fortune out of her, as he has been living retired for a number of years and you could not guess his age."


It appears the Dreadnaught had practical lines after all,  not so much a V, as a $.

Courser Launched To Acclaim

The Courser sternwheeler on northern sojourn - Stikine River - 1898Captain George H Cooper’s best known vessel was a sternwheel steamer, launched at the shipyard at Sapperton in February, 1892,  "gliding gracefully into the river amidst the cheers of quite a crowd of spectators."

Built for speed,  the vessel was christened "Courser."

The Courser was brought around to the CPR wharf in the city  to be fitted with her machinery, including twin engines, 16 X 48, with at output of 400 horsepower.

Long and slim — 130 feet long and only 14 feet wide — the Courser’s appearance on the Fraser warranted extensive press coverage up and down the coast.

"It is, however, in the draught that the great peculiarity of this vessel lies. At present, without her machinery, she only draw five inches of water, and when fully rigged and all her machinery in place, she will only draw ten inches. Capt. Cooper, like a Mississippi captain of world-wide fame, will be able to boast that his vessel can run on a heavy dew."

According to Captain Watts, Courser was "dubbed the Razorstrop owing to her peculiar build."

GH Cooper weds and starts family

1892 02 01 GH Cooper weds Annie Christina McLeodIn the same month he launched the Courser,  George Herbert Cooper slipped down the ways into married life, wedding Annie Christina McLeod.  The Rev Ebenezer Robson performed the ceremony. The couple honeymooned at Whatcom.

George and Annie Cooper had  two children, both born at New Westminster: son Herbert Francis Cooper, 1893, and daughter Rachel Ernestine Cooper, born in 1897.

Courser starts Fraser River express service to Chilliwack

The Courser was intended for the Fraser River run to Chilliwack. She would carry only passengers and light freight and touch only at the "principal landings." She was to be an express boat, making a run from Chilliwack to New Westminster and returning the same day. Captain Cooper announced he would publish a schedule of her stops that people could depend upon.

With her 400 horsepower engines providing "three times the power used by any other vessel of her size in British Columbia," and with a draught that "is the lightest, without exception, of any steamer on the Pacific Coast,"  the Courser was capable of "greater speed than that of any vessel at present plying on inland waters."

On her  trial run from New Westminster to Chilliwack in July 1892, the Courser made the upriver trip in 6 hours running time and the return was made in 3 hours 15 minutes.

Cooper reported that in "dead water" the Courser could make 15 knots, or 28 km per hour.

In August the sternwheeler went into regular service.


1892 09 15 steamer Courser daily to Chilliwack Capt Cooper - advert"The Steamer ‘Courser’ will make daily trips (except Sunday) to New Westminster and return, making headquarters at Chilliwack. Leaves Chilliwack every morning at 6 o’clock, reaching Westminster at 10 a.m Returning -  Leave Westminster at 2 p.m., reaching Chilliwack about 7 o’clock p.m.

– Capt. Cooper."


Captain Cooper turns the Courser to Contract Work

Competition was keen on the Fraser, and for this reason or another,  the Courser appears to have abandoned her schedule by the time winter set in. In the spring of 1893 the Courser was engaged on contract work. In April the Courser was hired to help raise the engines and cars of a CPR work train that had struck a rock-slide at Sea Bird Bluff and plunged into Fraser River, killing two men.

Courser on Upper Fraser

In 1894 Captain Cooper announced his intention to take the Courser up the Fraser River to Lytton and run her to Lillooet.  Defying skeptics who believed she could not get through the Fraser Canyon, Captain Cooper declared that if the Courser could not "make the riffle" he would build another vessel that could.

1894 Fraser River Flood – Courser performs rescues

Later in the year the Fraser River overflowed its banks and there was depth of water sufficient to make navigation easy throughout the Fraser Valley. The Courser, Capt GH Cooper,  was one of two vessels doing the most work of rescuing stranded settlers and livestock, the other being the Gladys, Captain HH Burr.

In the great Fraser River flood of 1894 the plight of some settlers was desperate and the task urgent. Rescue work was not without its risks. On June 6th the Courser was tied up to the Cheam bridge at Ryder’s when the bridge was battered by a log jam and, to the consternation of her Captain, swept away downstream, dragging the Courser and all hands with it. Crew and vessel escaped unharmed.

Resumes scheduled service

In the fall of 1895 the Courser was once again making regular runs to the upper Fraser in opposition to the CPNCo boat Transfer.


"As the Courser draws only about as much water when loaded as the Transfer does light, the former will have a wide margin on the river traffic, and as Capt Cooper is very punctual and obliging he is well deserving of a large share of the patronage. . ."


Captain Cooper and Courser Gold Mining  Fraser River

In November 1895 Captain Cooper converted his vessel into a mining dredger and the Courser embarked a new venture: hydraulic mining the gold reaches of the Fraser River between Harrison River and Yale,  the scene of the gold rush that prompted the founding of  British Columbia in 1858


"Capt. Cooper is undertaking the enterprise on his own account, the men with him being under wages.

The steamer has been fitted with extra engines for pumping and dredging. The pumps are powerful, and will be used for hydraulicing the banks where gold is found, and when these are worked out dredging and bar working will follow.

From the bars the dirt will be taken aboard the steamer by machinery and sluiced there.

As the steamer can move about readily from one point to another, Capt. Cooper expects to keep the work going steadily and at a satisfactory profit."


Provisioned with several months of supplies the Courser was expected to carry on work all winter, as long as weather conditions permitted.

Cooper Proposes New Ferry Boat

In December 1896 Captain George H Cooper  proposed to the city of New Westminster that they grant him a charter to build and  operate a railway ferry to South Westminster. His offer was sent to committee.

Working on Harrison Lake: A Natural Phenomenon Observed

In the summer of 1897 Captain Cooper’s reported evidence of "volcanic activity" at Harrison Lake was widely circulated.

"The captain describes the lake as a mass of muddy ferment, which he can only attributes to volcanic effort."

Dominion Meteorologist Adolphus Peele concurred with Captain Cooper, suggesting "that a disastrous and far-reaching eruption is within the bounds of possibility."


Rush to Yukon Gold – Courser Goes North

In early spring of 1898,  concurrent with the Yukon gold excitement, Captain Cooper sold the steamer Courser to the Glenora Steamship Company,  to ply the Stikine River route from Wrangel, Alaska.  Cooper maintained an interest in the vessel.

1898 steamers on the Stikine River - SS Strathcona - SS Stikine Chief -HJWThe Courser was one of many boats from the south coast that moved north that summer to take advantage of the increase in traffic. Even the government snagboat Samson went north, towed up to the Stikine to remove obstructions in the river.

At season’s end, Captain Cooper was offered an opportunity to take back the Courser, for the amount of her mortgage.

Courser With A Drunken Crew – Captain Cooper’s Odyssey

In the middle of October Capt George H Cooper journeyed north to pick up the Courser at Wrangel and bring her back to New Westminster.

Cooper related the story of his adventure in his book Ancient Britain,  comparing the events of his voyage with those written about by Homer.


"In 1898 the author navigated the stern-wheel steamer Courser from Wrangel in Alaska to New Westminster in British Columbia. On the way down the coast he had an experience which reminded him very forcibly of the plight of Odysseus with a drunken crew, but in this instance of an even more serious nature."


Mariner Rejoins His Family – Courser back on Fraser River -  Dark Clouds Loom

Safely home,  Cooper gathered with his family in New Westminster — wife Annie and his two young children, Herbert Francis, 6, and Rachel Ernestine, 2 years old — to relate the story of his adventure.

The Courser resumed jobbing and contract work.

It was the following spring, in April 1899, that the Courser was hired to sub for the steam ferry Surrey, on the short haul across the Fraser River between the city and South Westminster, work she performed for two months.

Later in 1899 the Courser was running to Yale and was stopped at “The Sisters” because of low-water and forced to lighten and return to Hope.

In April 1900 Captain Cooper signed an 8-month contract to tow logs to Harrison Mills.

However, with a source of steady income ahead to support his wife and young children, Cooper was disturbed by demands from the holder of a mortgage on the Courser, Yorkshire Guarantee and Security Corporation Ltd, the result of complications from the Stikine venture with Glenora Steamboat Company. 

As much as he enjoyed success with his business, his interests and his family,  as time went by a dispute over the ownership of the Courser would become all-consuming.

George H Cooper’s Mathematical Revolution

20th Century System of Notation - octimal system - GH Cooper - title pageIn January 1901 a different side of Captain George H Cooper came to public notice with announcement of the publication of a book on arithmetic notation. For the past three years Cooper had spent his spare time working out what became known as his "mathematical revolution."

Cooper had developed, same said "invented," a radical system of arithmetic based on the number eight. Cooper called this the "octimal system of notation."  (Based on a radix 8, the system is sometimes called “octonal.”)

Cooper rightly pointed out that any system of notation was purely arbitrary, including the decimal system in common use. He claimed many advantages for his model, most notably its ease of learning and application.

Cooper had presented his findings to prominent mathematicians in the USA and local educators alike.

His work was now ready for publication and was run off in pamphlet form on the presses of the British Columbian newspaper.

Octimal System of Notation - notice in Scientific American - 1901Captain Cooper next took a trip to Buffalo, NY in 1901, to the Pan-American Exposition, in aid of promoting his system of notation to leading educators and mathematicians.

A early advocate of Cooper’s system in British Columbia wrote:

"There is not an important mathematical institution to which it has been presented that has not approved of the octimal system. The president of the American Mathematical Society, Cornell University, the Bryant & Stratton Business College, and many others, both in America and Great Britain, have unanimously endorsed it, and its inventor will this year conduct a large school in the vicinity of London to prove its utility."
JT Wilson, Paper on The Octimal System, British Colonist 1902 04 06.


Courser seized – Elementary Arithmetic

In May 1902 the Courser was seized by the Sheriff at New Westminster, to satisfy a demand of the Yorkshire Guarantee and Securities Corp, and put up for auction.


"Sheriff’s Sale Province of British Columbia, County of Westminster.

To wit:

Under and by virtue of a warrant of execution to me directed and delivered against the goods and chattels of George H Cooper, at the suit of the Yorkshire Guarantee & Securities Corporation, Limited, I have seized and will sell near Cross Bros.’ shipyard, New Westminster, on Monday, the second day of June, 1902, at ten o’clock in the forenoon, the following, or sufficient thereof to satisfy the judgment debt and costs herein: The stern-wheel steamer Courser; registered tonnage 101.30 tons; together with all her equipment. Terms of Sale: Cash. For further particulars apply to the undersigned.

TJ Armstrong, Sheriff."


Cooper managed to stay the sale on this date, but the boat was soon sold.

Under the regulations, Cooper was entitled to an exemption of $500, and while the Sheriff stated he was not advised of Cooper’s claim, Cooper maintained he had informed the Sheriff.

In 1903, Judge Henderson so ruled.

"Cooper said, in effect, ‘The Glenora Steamship Company have such a claim on the steamer that I think they are owners, but if they are not I want my exemption in any event.’

Captain Cooper is an excitable and voluble man and in his conversation with the sheriff and the deputy sheriff said much more than was necessary and than he ought to have said, so that it is not at all surprising that the deputy sheriff did not hear him say anything about the exemption.

For the forgoing reasons I am of the opinion that the defendant Cooper is entitled to the exemption claimed by him, and I so order.
Alexander Henderson March 23, 1903"

Yorkshire Guarantee prosecuted its interest aggressively and unremittingly, unwilling to allow the exemption, and while the Captain celebrated many triumphs along the way, 

"Winner – Captain Cooper Successful in a Law Suit"

the victories were always fleeting and the legal wrangling unending. The financier would not let go, dragging out the process appeal by appeal over a period of 5 years and driving Captain Cooper to the edge of insanity.

For details of decisions regarding Cooper v.Yorkshire Guarantee & Securities Corp.,  and Yorkshire Guarantee & Securities Corp. v. Cooper, see the British Columbia Reports of Cases, available online.

Elementary Arithmetic – New Book; Same Old Court Proceedings

Elementary Arithmetic ad Hillis-MurgottenIn November 1902 Cooper’s mathematical work was presented to a wider public with the publication in San Francisco of a pamphlet in the Western Mathematics Series by Whitaker & Ray.

 Elementary Arithmetic of the Octimal Notation, by George H Cooper, was described as "a system that does away with much of the tedious and involved work of the decimal system now in use."

As his mathematics became wider known,  Captain Cooper was often called upon to lecture to educators and the general public.

However, Cooper’s  energy and attention was continually diverted to his cause of compensation for the sale of the Courser.

Cooper many times appealed to the public and made speeches, ever more strident, against the system of law that would allow such a process to proceed. He enjoyed much public support for his plight, but without practical effect.

Cooper’s Court Action – Dodgers call for Volunteers – Captain adjudged insane

In June 1906, at the end of his rope, Cooper took to distributing dodgers — an apt name for handbills — that called for a raising a private posse to seize back control of his vessel, the Courser.

1905 06 24 Cooper distributes dodgers Calls for Volunteers

-Capt. Cooper Issues Dodgers

Which Are Gathered Up

By the Police

Another dodger was printed and distributed in the city today in connection with the case of Cooper vs. Yorkshire Guarantee and Securities Corporation, which has been before the courts for some time.

The dodger, which is signed ‘The Committee,’ calls for volunteers to report to Captain Cooper by the 28th inst. to take action against the courts.


The handbill concluded with "Cowards will please stay away."

"The dodger attracted the attention of the provincial and city police and the latter were gathering them up with a view to holding a conference to see what was best to be done under the circumstances."

The matter came to a head with the arrest of Captain Cooper by Chief McIntosh, who had him examined by two doctors.

"They agreed his mind was disordered on this one subject, and on their advice the captain agreed to visit California in the hope that change of scene may bring about restoration to health, a hope which will be shared by many in this city."

A Victoria headline stated the outcome of five years of legal wrangling in stark terms:

"Captain Adjudged Insane.

Citizen of the Royal City Given Ten Days to Get Out or Go to Asylum."

Cooper’s Household Sold – Family Departs to California

On July 6, 1905 Cooper’s remaining goods and household effects were sold by auction.

"The auction sale at Captain Cooper’s residence this morning was well attended and sympathy with the captain appeared to run high. Many kind friends, who believe that wrong has been done Captain Cooper in the courts, bought back many articles put up for sale and place them to his credit in their places."

Since first going to work on a fishing trawler off the Cornish coast at the age of 13, boats and the sea had formed a major part of Captain George H Cooper’s identity. The forcible and clumsy severing of this link, by the drawn-out action to seize his self-built steamer Courser, without allowing the  slightest compensation mandated by law, brought an end to this phase of Cooper’s life. His life in bandages, Cooper left with his family to California, there to began a new phase of a most remarkable career.

The End of the Courser 

According to a report in the Colonist titled "The Courser’s End," after the departure of Captain Cooper the steamer Courser was renamed the Cheam.  The sternwheeler came to grief "on a shoal in the Harrison river," and was abandoned in May 1906, a year after her former Captain was seized

Cooper in California – An Exile Made Home

George H Cooper and family departed New Westminster in 1905 and settled for good in San Jose, California.

(Without access to the local paper, — the San Jose Mercury-Herald, to which Cooper contributed articles, — our knowledge of his activities there, year by year, is derived mainly  from notice of  his written work .We hope someone at San Jose will contribute more information.)

Cooper continued to promulgate his "octimal" system of notation, by writing letters and articles, and his books on arithmetic were kept in print with different publishers.

All About the Moon - GH Cooper sample article - Sunspot 1915-11Cooper had a besetting curiosity and a zeal to expand the boundaries of  thought, exploring the fields of  astronomy, archaeology, and literature.

He contributed a series of articles to a The Sunspot, the organ of JS Ricard of the Observatory at the University of Santa Clara.

Winged Flight – Cooper A Pioneer Aviator -  Brings Myth to Life

In 1910 Cooper made headlines when he attempted — Icarus like — to develop a set of wings that could aid a man to fly.  The illustration of his apparatus, in the San Francisco Call, closely resembles equipment in use today.


Capt George H Cooper flying equipment - SF Call"Long before Wilbur Wright announced that his brothers were experimenting with a motorless aeroplane, Capt. George H Cooper of this city, originator of the octimal system of notation, devised a pair of wings patterned after those of a hawk."

"The inventor applies something like 300 pounds pressure to the wings of his flying machine through an intricate arrangement of pulleys, levers and powerful springs which bring the planes back to the original position."



Described as a "San Jose Astronomer," Cooper was also making a study of Halley’s comet.

In 1911 Cooper published in the San Jose Mercury & Herald a "geometry of Stonehenge," which he also forwarded to the British Museum.

Ancient Britain

In 1921 Cooper published his major work  Ancient Britain: The Cradle of Civilization, a thesis of which was that Britain, specifically Salisbury Plain, had been the site of Eden.

A list of the illustrations in the book provides a good indication of the scope of Cooper’s thought, ranging from "River of Eden," to "Map of the Odyssey," to "Mexican Calendar-stone," to "Dresden Codex" and "Circle at Avebury."

As ever, Cooper drew on his personal experiences and observations, couple with his extensive reading and research. In his discussion of the Sirens described by Homer he brings to bear knowledge he acquired while steamboating and gold-dredging on the upper Fraser River.

"We are acquainted with such a story among the Indians of British Columbia, where an Indian pointed out the rocks and related the story to the author.

A short distance below Yale, on the Fraser River, are two large boulders, one on either side of the river. At the period of low water they stand exposed a few feet out from the banks.

In the Indian lore the upper rock is a hunter and the lower one is a deer. The hunter started to swim across the river just as the deer entered the water to swim across in the opposite direction.

The hunter saw the deer as the deer observed the hunter.

They are both still standing; the hunter so as not to frighten the deer, and the deer perplexed at the danger which he scents, but resolved not to attract the attention of the hunter by moving."

(These appear to be the rock known as Tewit, and the rock called Sqwema:y, or possibly Q’oyiyets,  as described in the Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem.)

Literary critic HL Mencken touted Ancient Britain as

"Massive and overwhelming proof that the Garden of Eden was on Salisbury Plain. A masterpiece of archeological New Thought by a San Jose, Cal., savant."

Other critics were less generous. .

Druid Bible

George H Cooper in 1936 published his Druid Bible, an adumbration of his theories first put forward in Ancient Britain, that this was the site of Eden and that the myths, religious beliefs, cultural symbols and precepts passed down through generations, had their origin in Britain.

The book received acclaim for the "astonishing industry and ingenuity" of the author, for its ease of reading, for the quality of its printing and for the many photographs, charts, maps and diagrams. Though few were prepared to endorse Cooper’s theories, it was generally held to be a provocative and engaging read.

The works of George H Cooper are, if anything, more relevant today than when they were written, for in his attempt to bring into harmony myth, science, and experience, he expands our thinking, assigning a greater value to ancient cultures, their symbols and stories, than can be dreamt of within the strictures of empirical thought.

As one who once came upon a place where the intermingled voices of many generations rose together, clamoring to be heard, while the mind struggled to find the scientific “explanation,” we must allow it is sometimes better to rest in awe of some greater understanding.

No scientific quibbles about Cooper’s mathematical texts, though: they are very pertinent in this digital age. His “elementary arithmetic” based on a radix 8 is a useful system.  To be able to do your calculations with your thumbs hooked in your pockets, eyes skyward, well, that’s  right on, much appreciated.


"The Author, when a child, ran several miles to touch the clouds on the horizon which he was sure he could reach. . .” 

George H. Cooper

George Herbert Cooper appears to have died at Santa Clara, California on July 22, 1946. As yet we have no obituary or other confirmation than the California Death Index. His birthdate is given as February 11, 1859.

Books by George Herbert Cooper:

Open Library works by George H Cooper

Twentieth century system of notation : calculations made easy, the octimal system of notation and numeration, combining simplicity with the greatest practical utility. 1901. This is the Cooper’s first pamphlet, printed at New Westminster BC.

Elementary arithmetic of the octimal notation. 1902.

Hathi Trust available works by George H Cooper-
Elementary arithmetic of the octimal notation.1902

Ancient Britain the cradle of civilization. 1921.

The Druid bible; the primitive testament and natural predecessor of the Old and New Testament, universal key to prehistoric symbolic records, startling proofs that ancient Britain was the cradle of civilization. 1936.

Decipherment of the record on a Maya stela from Guatemala, Central America exhibited at the Golden Gate International Exposition, San Francisco. 1939.

Additional resources:

Icarus of the Twentieth Century-  news article about Cooper’s flying apparatus. Review of Cooper’s writings about Atlantis.

Atlantipedia biography of George H Cooper

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